Wednesday, December 29, 2010
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Wednesday, December 22, 2010
The medical sub domain that makes use of nuclear materials in order to treat or diagnose a number of diseases is called nuclear medicine. The diseases treated and diagnosed with the use of such materials include different types of cancer, heart disease as well as other bodily abnormalities. Around one third of the patients admitted to hospitals are either diagnosed or treated using nuclear materials.
The diagnostic procedure in nuclear medicine involves the use of radioisotopes or radiotracers which are either injected into a vein, swallowed or inhaled as gas by the patient. If more neutrons are added to a chemical element and if this combination does not exist in nature, the atom becomes unstable and is called a radioactive isotope.
These nuclear materials (radiotracers) are designed to be attracted by certain types of tissue (such as bone or tumour). The radiotracer is therefore collected in a certain area of the body which the doctors wish to treat or analyze. The radiotracer consists of radioisotopes. As already mentioned, radioisotopes are obtained by changing the number of neutrons within certain chemical elements. If these isotopes do not exist in nature, the atoms become unstable. For this reason, radioisotopes emit positrons (due to their instability) in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gamma rays. The photons emitted are then collected by a gamma camera. This way, images are produced which reflect a certain state of an area of the body (such as a bone, the heart or the brain) where the radiotracers are located. This in turn gives information about certain features of the area to be analyzed and is used for example for detecting tumours. The nuclear materials used in this domain of medicine reflect the main difference between a regular X-ray and diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging. The other main difference is that they can also be used for soft tissue.
Nuclear materials are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes. Like in the diagnostic procedure, radioactive materials are used to irradiate certain organs or cells and they are attracted by certain types of cells or tissue. The radioactive elements are attached to a biological compound leading only to the area to be treated. When they reach their location in the body, the radioisotopes emit radiation into their target cells and organs and destroy or weaken the diseased cells. The radiation can be used for cancer therapy, pain relief, or to reduce the function of certain organs.
The use of radioactive materials in medicine presents a small risk of the patients developing cancer. Any therapeutic or diagnosis procedure involving the use of such materials is regulated by governmental agencies which issue and regulate medical licenses for this practice. In practice, the amount of radiation is kept as low as possible, but varies according to the progression of the disease to be treated. The waste resulting from the use of radioisotopes in medicine (such as towels, clothing or tools) undergo decay storage for up to a few years. After this, they are considered to be radioactive waste.
Friday, December 17, 2010
Another 17 of America’s richest people, including Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, junk bond pioneer Michael Milken and AOL co-founder Steve Case, have promised to give away most of their wealth.
At 26, Zuckerberg has put himself on the map not only as one of the world’s youngest billionaires, but also as a prominent newcomer to the world of philanthropy.
Earlier this year, he pledged $100 million over five years to the Newark, New Jersey school system. Now, he’s in the company of media titans Carl Icahn, 74, Barry Diller, 68, and others who have joined Giving Pledge, an effort led by Microsoft founder Bill Gates and investor Warren Buffett to commit the country’s wealthiest people to step up their charitable donations.
The group has signed up 57 people and their families since launching the campaign in June. The list also includes New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, CNN founder Ted Turner and film director George Lucas. But Zuckerberg and Facebook co-founder Dustin Moskowitz, 26, are the two youngest. ”People wait until late in their career to give back. But why wait when there is so much to be done?” Zuckerberg said in a statement. ”With a generation of younger folks who have thrived on the success of their companies, there is a big opportunity for many of us to give back earlier in our lifetime and see the impact of our philanthropic efforts.” Though the pledge is not a formal contract, those who make it are committing to give away at least half of their wealth to philanthropic causes either in their lifetime or after they die.
Zuckerberg’s commitment to the Newark school system was through his Startup: Education foundation, which he established as part of the donation. The $100 million will be given in the form of Facebook shares, which the foundation will be responsible for selling to raise cash. Zuckerberg owns about a quarter of Facebook’s shares, and Moskowitz owns a much smaller stake. Though the company’s shares aren’t publicly traded, they can be sold on private stock exchanges, something some of Facebook’s current and former employees have done. Shares on these markets are sold for as much as buyers will pay, but because the market is small and ”illiquid,” it doesn’t necessarily give a good idea value of the shares once the company goes public. As such, it’s difficult to estimate how much the shares are really worth, though there’s no doubt Facebook is worth quite a bit. On SharesPost, one of the markets where Facebook shares are traded, the company’s common stock recently had a completed contract between a buyer and a seller at $25, implying a valuation of nearly $57 billion or roughly $14 billion for the shares that Zuckerberg owns.
Facebook did not respond to a request to interview Zuckerberg about his pledge on Thursday, and there are not many details available about how the promises will work. By pushing the age for substantial charitable giving lower, Zuckerberg is challenging today’s generation of tech entrepreneurs to think not just about how they will make their next million or billion but how they will give it away. ”Younger donors think longer-term because they will be giving longer-term,” said Jason Franklin, a professor at New York University and the executive director of the nonprofit Bolder Giving, which encourages people from all walks of life to give big. ”Giving when you are older, you give so your children will have a better world. Giving when you are in your 20s, you give so you will have a better world.”
Thursday, December 16, 2010
A couple of weeks ago in Pakistan an illegal race took place on the streets of Islamabad.
During the race a sports car, half way through the course got out of control and smashed into the crowd.
FIVE people died on the spot.
Those who lost their lives in the accident include Baber Ali (Askari Bank), Asfandyar Ali (15-year son of Baber), Sohail Khan and his son Danyal Khan and Mohsin Javed (son of Col Javed). Majid Naeem (senior auditor PTCL) survived unhurt from the tragedy.
The drag race festivity turned into a fatal tragedy when 11 years old child named Asfand Yar also died along with his father in the incident of said drag race held in Rawalpindi. It is told that he had written an essay in his English Paper on the subject “The Accident” just two days before his death. The said essay becomes the real story of his death as he died while watching a drag race along with his family. The matter has also been reported in sections of print media. The office moved a note to Chief Justice of Pakistan to intimate about the incident.
The driver of the car escaped and no arrest has taken place till now.However the Chief Justice taking notice passed the following orders:- “Stately, loss has been caused to the lives of five persons, including a child who along with his family members was present at the site and apparently so far no legal action has been initiated against the responsible persons thus above note be treated as Petition under Article 184 (3) of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Pakistan and fix it in Court on 13.12.2010)” .
Here is the video link:
Child writes of his own death-Youtube
Wednesday, December 15, 2010
Almost everyone has experienced at some point in their life swallowing a gum. It may be for various reasons as to why you end up swallowing your gum. And right after you have swallowed your gum, you remember being told by your mother that gum will stick in your insides and will take seven years before it goes out of your body. This is one sticky situation that you would not want to be in.
However, it’s a good thing to know that gum won’t stick around your body for seven years. The stuff your mother tells you that it will take that long for gum to leave your body is actually, and thankfully, just a myth. If it’s not true, then how long does gum take to digest?
Gum is classified as indigestible, but that doesn’t mean that gum cannot pass through your digestive tract and out of your body.
So how long does it take before you can expel the gum from your body? This differs from every person. We have different metabolism speeds, so it takes different amounts of time for people to expel gum. A safe answer would be that gum takes just as much time as it takes for food to be expelled from the body.
How long does gum take to digest? It doesn’t get digested, well not fully at least. How long does gum take to be expelled from the body? It takes just as much time as it does for your food to be out of your body. But remember, this is no excuse for you keep swallowing your gum. Frequent and continuous swallowing of gum could actually lead to clogging your large intestine, one sticky ending that you wouldn’t want to have.
Friday, December 10, 2010
A turtle family decided to go on a picnic. the turtles, being naturally slow about things, took seven years to prepare for their outing. Finally the turtle family left home looking for a suitable place. During the second year of their journey they found a place ideal for them at last!
For about six months they cleaned the area, unpacked the picnic basket, and completed the arrangements. Then they discovered they had forgotten the salt. A picnic without salt would be a disaster, they all agreed. After a lengthy discussion, the youngest turtle was chosen to retrieve the salt from home. Although he was the fastest of the slow moving turtles, the little turtle whined, cried, and wobbled in his shell. He agreed to go on one condition: that no one would eat until he returned. The family consented and the little turtle left.
Three years passed and the little turtle had not returned.. Five years…six years… then on the seventh year of his absence, the oldest turtle could no longer contain his hunger. He announced that he was going to eat and begun to unwrap a sandwich.
At that point the little turtle suddenly popped out from behind a tree shouting, ‘See! I knew you wouldn’t wait. Now I am not going to go get the salt.’
[Some of us waste our time waiting for people to live up to our expectations. We are so concerned about what others are doing that we don't do anything ourselves.]
Tuesday, December 7, 2010
Monday, December 6, 2010
The founder of WikiLeaks has warned that his supporters are primed to publish a 'deluge' of leaked government documents should his activities be curtailed by any country; where as his lawyer Mark Stephens says that the organisation held further secret material which it regarded as a "thermo-nuclear device" to be released if it needs to protect itself.
Julian Assange has distributed to fellow hackers an encrypted 'poison pill' of damaging secrets, thought to include details on BP and Guantanamo Bay. He believes the file is his 'insurance' in case he is killed, arrested or the whistleblowing website is removed permanently from the internet. Mark Stephens said Mr Assange would "certainly" fight deportation to Sweden on the grounds that it could lead to him being handed over to the US, where senior politicians have called for him to be executed.
He said that the WikiLeaks site which was last week forced to move to a Swiss host after being dumped by US internet companies had come under siege from "a huge number of cyber-attacks". WikiLeaks has been in the eye of a media and diplomatic storm since it started leaking US diplomatic cables from a collection of some 250,000 it had obtained, embarrassing and infuriating Washington. Assange, a 39-year-old Australian, who is believed to be in Britain, broke cover on Friday to say in an online chat that he had boosted security after receiving death threats.
WikiLeaks says 831 cables have been posted to its site so far. His lawyer Mark Stephens also warned that WikiLeaks had secret material in reserve, which he likened to a "thermo-nuclear device", to be released if it needed to protect itself.
Friday, December 3, 2010
The whistleblower website Wikileaks was back on line Friday with a new Swiss address — wikileaks.ch — six hours after its previous domain name — wikileaks.org — was shut down.
“Wikileaks moves to Switzerland,” the group declared on Twitter, although an Internet trace of the new domain name suggested that the site itself is still hosted in Sweden and in France. Webusers accessing the wikileaks.ch address are directed to a page under the URL http://184.108.40.206/ — which gives them access to the former site, including a massive trove of leaked US diplomatic traffic.
The original wikileaks.org domain was taken offline at 0300 GMT Friday by its American domain name system provider, EveryDNS.net, following reports of massive cyber attacks on the site. “The interference at issue arises from the fact that wikileaks.org has become the target of multiple distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks,”EveryDNS.net said in a statement.
Classic DDoS attacks occur when legions of “zombie” computers, normally machines infected with viruses, are commanded to simultaneously visit a website, overwhelming servers or knocking them offline completely. The latest technological setback for the whistleblower site came after Amazon booted it from its computer servers on Wednesday following pressure from US politicians, prompting the site to move to a French server. “Free speech in the land of the free — fine, our dollars are now spent to employ people in Europe,”
Wikileaks said. “If Amazon are so uncomfortable with the First Amendment, they should get out of the business of selling books.” On Sunday, Wikileaks began publishing the first batch of more than 250,000 US diplomatic cables, many of them classified as “secret”, that the website is believed to have obtained from a disaffected US soldier.
Wikileaks founder Julian Assange said last month that he was considering requesting asylum in Switzerland and basing the whistle-blowing website in the fiercely neutral Alpine country. “That is a real possibility,” Assange said when asked whether he and the website might relocate, adding that Switzerland, and perhaps Iceland, were the only Western countries that his outfit feels safe in. Assange told the TSR television that Wikileaks was examining the possibility of creating a foundation that would allow it to operate out of Switzerland, and confirmed he might apply for asylum.
Thursday, December 2, 2010
Ever heard the story of the giant ship engine that failed? The ship’s owners tried one expert after another, but none of them could figure but how to fix the engine.
Then they brought in an old man who had been fixing ships since he was a youngster. He carried a large bag of tools with him, and when he arrived, he immediately went to work. He inspected the engine very carefully, top to bottom.
Two of the ship’s owners were there, watching this man, hoping he would know what to do. After looking things over, the old man reached into his bag and pulled out a small hammer. He gently tapped something. Instantly, the engine lurched into life. He carefully put his hammer away.
The engine was fixed! A week later, the owners received a bill from the old man for ten thousand dollars.
”What?!” the owners exclaimed. “He hardly did anything!”
So they wrote the old man a note saying, “Please send us an itemized bill.”
The man sent a bill that read:
Tapping with a hammer …….. $ 2.00
Knowing where to tap ………… $ 9998.00
Moral: Effort is important, but knowing where to make an effort in your life makes all the difference.
Wednesday, December 1, 2010
Don’t tell me your age; you’d probably lie anyway-but the Hershey Man will know!
DON’T CHEAT BY SCROLLING DOWN FIRST!
It takes less than a minute .
Work this out as you read .
Be sure you don’t read the bottom until you’ve worked it out!
This is not one of those waste of time things, it’s fun.
1. First of all, pick the number of times a week that you would like to have chocolate (more than once but less than 10)
2. Multiply this number by 2 (just to be bold)
3. Add 5
4. Multiply it by 50 — I’ll wait while you get the calculator
5. If you have already had your birthday this year add 1760 ..
If you haven’t, add 1759..
6… Now subtract the four digit year that you were born.
You should have a three digit number
The first digit of this was your original number
(i.e., how many times you want to have chocolate each week).
The next two numbers are
YOUR AGE! (Oh YES, it is!!!!!)
THIS IS THE ONLY YEAR (2010) IT WILL EVER WORK, SO SPREAD IT AROUND WHILE IT LASTS.
Chocolate Calculator this is amazing!! Chocolate Calculator this is amazing!!
Share through the facebook share link while it lasts !